Concluded Laboratory 2014/03/31
Director : Reiko TSUCHIYA
Professor,Faculty of Political Science and Economics
The occupation period: Report relating to Japan in America in the 1950s, cultural strategy and Japan, the Japanese people
Overview of research
The research group is involved in the creation and release of a database of newspapers and magazines in the Prange Collection, the establishment of a researcher community involved in the study of various themes centered on the period of the occupation, the publication of the research journal “Intelligence” (issues 1 to 10), and the editing of a series of carefully selected, valuable magazine articles known as the “Senryoki Zasshi Shiryo Taikei” (series on popular culture, completed, series on literature, to be published in November with 5 volumes in each series).
Using the foundation built up from the results of these activities, the group has launched a new project aimed at conducting comprehensive research on Japanese reports in America (taken in a broad sense) from the perspective of cultural strategy, in areas including media supervision during the period of the occupation, culture, public opinion policies, public opinion surveys, propaganda strategies (the CIE domains described above), media censorship, monitoring of communications, intelligence activities (CCD domains), activities of American intelligence agencies immediately after independence, and work in the Japanese political and media arena (CIA domains). In short, in the duration of this project, we aim to work toward expanding the research that has been carried out by the research group thus far, and at the same time, to explore new areas of research.
In the 1950s, or the period of the occupation and immediately after independence, Japan and the Japanese were governed by the Americans, not only in the area of its security system, but in all aspects of life, and it is said that the situation has continued to this very day. There is much discussion in Japan and America as to the reasons behind America’s successful occupation of Japan, in contrast to its failed occupation of Iraq. The conclusion reached in such discussions is often that strategies used in the Japanese occupation were not employed in the Iraq occupation. While there are various types of strategies, many have suggested that the information and cultural strategies used in Japan’s case had been the most effective. Some also argue that the strong spirit of Confucianism present among the Japanese has made them weaker to internal and external authority and power, as compared to believers of the Islamic faith. However, most of such assertions and arguments have not been proven through empirical and historical research. Hence, this project aims to undertake empirical research on the extent to which Japan and the Japanese came to accept the occupation policies of the Americans and policies established in the 1950s, paying particular attention to information and cultural strategies.
The members of this project group have been visiting America every year in continued efforts to collect and analyze the latest materials available in databases such as the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) and the Prange Collection. Taking pride in our position at the frontlines of research in Japan, the group has also presented its research results in the form of book and research paper publications; nevertheless, countless areas remain uncovered, and the collection of materials is far from adequate. The majority of the awareness and public opinion surveys conducted by the GHQ on the Japanese have not been studied. For instance, we would like to focus on systematic collection and analysis of data relating to the public opinion polls from the postal censorship of the Civil Censorship Detachment (CCD), and the public opinion and citizenship surveys conducted by the Civil Information and Education Section (CIE).
Through the funding provided by the Organization for University Research Initiatives, we hope to expand the scope of our data collection, and conduct further in-depth analyses on the subject. In addition, there are plans to organize regular research seminars with the staff and graduate students from the East Asia research institutes at Columbia University and the University of Maryland when we visit America, with the aims of furthering exchange of research information and advancing research. The materials for the period covered in the scope of our research consist mainly of materials at organizations such as NARA, which may also be accessed by the Japanese under the United Statesf National Disclosure Policy. This also applies to the comprehensive collection of censored occupation period media, in the form of magazines, newspapers, and books, under the Prange Collection at the University of Maryland. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) officially commenced disclosure of its materials in 2004. We aim to utilize our findings on the period of the occupation through our research on CCD and CIA, and take up the challenge of conducting further research on CIA materials. Furthermore, we intend to put in requests for the disclosure of related information in both Japan and America in order to enrich our information database.
Taketoshi YAMAMOTO (Professor emeritus,Waseda University)
Reiko TSUCHIYA (Professor, Faculty of Political Science and Economics)
Makiyo HORI (Professor, Faculty of Political Science and Economics)
Naoyuki UMEMORI (Professor, Faculty of Political Science and Economics)
Masazumi WAKATABE (Professor, Faculty of Political Science and Economics)
Tetsuo ARIMA (Professor, Faculty of Social Sciences)
Norikazu KAWAGISHI (Professor, Faculty of Political Science and Economics)
Kenko KAWASAKI (Part-time Lecturer, Faculty of Political Science and Economics, and Faculty of Letters, Arts and Sciences, Waseda University)
Tetsuro KATO (Visiting Professor,Graduate School of Political Science,Waseda University)
Noriaki Yoshida (Lecturer,College of Sociology,Rikkyo University)
Mikio HARUNA (Visiting Professor,Graduate School of Political Science,Waseda University)
Keiko KATO (Lecturer,Leadership training Center, Ochanomizu University)
Mitsuo IKAWA (Professor,College of Sociology,Rikkyo University)
Takane SUZUKI (Part-time Lecturer,Faculty of Education and Integrated Arts and Sciences,Waseda University)
Bldg.No.1 Waseda Campus, Waseda University 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 169-8050, JAPAN
E-mail: [email protected]