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Preliminary Report of the Second and Third Excavations at Dahshur North, Egypt
(This text is a revised version of the preliminary report under the same title in Mediterraneus: Annual Report of the Collegium Mediterranistarum XXI (1998), pp. 15-30.)

S. Yoshimura / J. Kondo / S. Hasegawa / T. Nakagawa / S. Nishimoto / H. Kashiwagi / T. Endo / T. Sakata / M. Etaya

Waseda University Institute of Egyptology and Tokai University Research & Information Center carried out the second season's excavation at the site of Dahshur North, from July 26 to September 10, 1997. In the general survey of March 1996, the mud brick construction was found, which was supposed to be a tomb-chapel of the New Kingdom with the scale of 47 m in length and it was comparable with the tomb of Horemheb at Saqqara (note 1).
Then we excavated this area in the first season of March 1997, and inside the plan of the mud brick construction, the main shaft was found at the second court, and it was 13 m below the floor level. Shaft entrance was elaborately lined with limestone blocks, and consequently, two entrance doorways to several chambers appeared at the bottom, in which the eastern one leads to the westernmost chamber located under the cult chapel room of the plan. As sand deposit accumulated thickly in the shaft and eastern chambers, we cleaned these parts in this field season and found many objects.
Total assemblage of the objects in the shaft such as relief blocks, ornaments, or pottery sherds suggested the period of the late 18th Dynasty or the early 19th Dynasty and in this season, we found scarabs and shabtis. Then we could suppose the period of reusing the shaft and underground chambers of the tomb chapel.
Beside the excavation of the tomb-chapel, we enlarged the grids around it, and found several shaft tombs, in which jar sealings or sealing stamp on the plaster of the brick wall referring to the name of Akhenaten or Tutankhamen , were found. Then there is a possibility that the cemetery around the tomb-chapel was established around this period, and the result of the excavations will give us a great amount of information on the Memphite topography in the New Kingdom (note 2).
We would like to express our thanks to S.C.A.'s Messieurs, in particular to his Excellency, the secretary general, Dr. 'Aly Hasan. We also thank Dr. Zahi Hawass, the general director of the Giza Inspectorate, Mr. Muhammad Hagras, the general director of the Saqqara Inspectorate, Mr. Magdy al-Gandur and Sha'ban Ahmad, inspectors of the Saqqara Inspectorate.

As for the tomb-chapel, only the foundation of brick wall remained, and the upper part was lost completely. Then the excavation of the tomb chapel was carried out by following its general plan, and the main subject was to observe the method of the construction of the floor and the brick wall. It will be described from the architectural point of view later, and here the general strata of the site are noted. The most conspicuous example of the artificial layer was red sand composed of larger size of quarts particles and pebbles. In both courts, this red sand could be observed, and sand was also used for the under construction of the floor.
The shaft section was enabled observing the strata from the bedrock. As for the main shaft of the tomb chapel (Shaft A), the gray limestone chips layer which was composed of soft limestone flake, accumulated thickly, and we supposed that this resulted from the digging of the limestone bedrock to make a shaft and its accumulation seemed also artificial (note 3). The gravel appeared under this limestone chips layer, and it accumulated in about two meters, in which no dynastic relics were contained. Finally the bedrock came, the edge of the shaft entrance was cut, and the under ground chambers were dug in the lesser part of the bedrock.
As for the area outside the tomb-chapel, we excavated here according to the grid system. As mentioned before, the site was 700m square, and we divided this area into 100m squares, totaling 49 major grids. The central hilltop was measured 100m (NS) x 300m (EW), so that from 2E to 4E, where the tomb chapel stands. Each major grid was divided into 10m grids, for a total 100 minor grids. Then the grids which we concerned this season were 3D-89, 90, 99, 100, 4D-81, 82, 83 and 84, 3E-9, 10, 19, and 20.

Location Map at Dahshur 1Location Map at Dahshur 1 Location Map at Dahshur 2Location Map at Dahshur 2

Location Map at Dahshur 3Location Map at Dahshur 3 Tomb-chapel, planTomb-chapel, plan

General view of the tomb-chapelGeneral view of the tomb-chapel Room ERoom E

Sand deposits accumulated only about 30 cm from the surface, and removing it, limestone chips layer of the same feature as we mentioned in the part of shaft A appeared. Limestone chips layer was thick and wide in the western area (3D-89, 90, 99, 100, 3E-9, and 10), including that the area behind the chapel place of the plan and in the eastern area (4D-84, 94), so that beside the ramp. This limestone chips layer also seemed to be artificial, because it covered the sand which accumulated on the gravel. Gravel came under the sand deposit in the northern area (3E-19, 20), and it seemed to descend towards the southern area (note 4).
The wall foundation of the tomb-chapel seemed to be constructed partially on the limestone chips layer, which resulted from the digging of the bedrock for the shafts around the tomb-chapel.

1: Introduction

The architectural remains were divided mostly into two categories, so that the remains belonging to the tomb-chapel and the shafts or simple burials around the tomb-chapel.
As for the tomb-chapel remains, we describe the under construction of the floor in the first court mainly, and the underground chambers which were connected from the shaft in the second court. We excavated the chapel place of the plan also, but nothing was found except the sand deposit and limestone chips layer. The shafts located outside the tomb-chapel counted from the Shaft 17 to the Shaft 20, because we have observed 15 shaft tombs at the hilltop and the shaft 16 on the northern side of the tomb-chapel. Concerning the superstructure of these shafts, besides such shaft tombs, we found another pits which will become shafts in later excavations.
2: Remains belonging to the tomb chapel
1) The First Court
The original floor level of the first court was not certain, but the artificial red sand was used for the under layer. At the lowest level of this limestone chips accumulation, another brick wall was found. It was composed of compartments with an axis slightly different from the axis of the main building, and passed under the northern wall foundation of the first court. Then we concluded that another building in the previous period existed and new construction, the tomb-chapel of the larger size was built over it.
The small shaft (Shaft B) was found in the first court, and its entrance seemed to come from the floor level. The mud bricks coated by plaster were used for the lining of the shaft. The depth was 6.5m and from the bottom, entrance doorway appeared leading to the small room on the western side with the scale of 2.5m in length and 1.5m in height. A few objects such as the clay shabtis inscribed black ink, were found in this shaft.
2) The Second Court
In the second court, we excavated three rooms inside the shaft in this season, including Room A to Room C. During clearing of the bottom of the shaft, a part of the sealing blocks at the doorway to the Room A appeared (note 5). Sand deposit accumulated thickly in Room A and many objects such as relief blocks, shabtis, beads, and so on were found here (note 6). Room C was like a recess attached to the southeast corner of Room A and nothing was found (note 7). Room B is connected with Room A, and as sand deposit did not cover it, the floor could be observed before the cleaning work. At the doorway to the Room B, a part of the sealing blocks also remained. After the excavation, many objects such as sherds of Canaanite jars, shabtis, or ornamental objects were found.

Shaft A, looking from aboveShaft A, looking from above Shaft A, plan and sectionShaft A, plan and section

3: Remains outside the tomb-chapel
1) Shaft 17
Shaft 17 was located northwest of the tomb-chapel in the Grid 4D-83 and shaft entrance cut the gravel of 1.5m accumulation and the following limestone bedrock. The shaft depth was about 10m and the entrance doorways to the eastern side and western side were found. The eastern doorway was connected with Room A which was about 4 m square and fragments of bones or some ornamental objects were found. At the bottom of the shaft, there were two doorways to the eastern Room A and the western Room B, where sand deposit accumulated. In the Room B, the skull and bones were scattered, and a group of faience beads were picked up around it, which were reconstructed later. In the westernmost wall, there was a small hole from where a room belonging to another shaft could be recognized.

Tomb 17, planTomb 17, plan Tomb 17, sectionTomb 17, section

A part of the sealing wall using the mud brick remained at the doorway, and on which the plaster with seal impression of the name "Akhenaten" was observed (note 8).

Tomb 17, remains of blocking of doorwayTomb 17, remains of blocking of doorway Tomb 17, Seal impression on the blocking of doorwayTomb 17, Seal impression on the blocking of doorway

The jar sealings with the name "Tutankhamen" were also found in the Room B. Motif of the relief blocks and pottery decoration also suggested the characteristic style in this period.

Jar sealing found in the shaft tomb No. 17Jar sealing found in the shaft tomb No. 17 Transcription of the jar sealingTranscription of the jar sealing

2) Shaft 18
Shaft 18 was located beside Shaft 17 and it was abandoned before it was completely dug. The depth was 1.2 m, and the reason of its abandonment seemed to be the existence of huge rock included inside the gravel, which was difficult to remove. The bedrock was not cut down. Very few objects were found.
3) Shaft 19
Shaft 19 was located at the west of the chapel of the plan of the tomb-chapel, where a total of three pits were found side by side, of which the northern most one was numbered Shaft 19. The tomb was surrounded by limestone chips layer. Mud bricks and limestone blocks were used as a stopper of sand laying between limestone chips layer and gravel. The shaft entrance was cut into the gravel but before it reached the bedrock, the shaft end appeared. The depth was 2.2m and at its bottom, bones and a scattered group of red polished pottery were picked up. The tomb was plundered but we were not sure whether it was used as it was or not.
4) Shaft 20
Shaft 20 was located beside the northern side room of the tomb-chapel, and the shaft entrance with the scale of 3.1m in length and 1.6m in width appeared 2m below of the surface. It had an axis of N-S direction, which was completely different from the others, and it was lined with the mud bricks. Removing the sand deposit in the shaft, a part of limestone statue with a worshiping pose was revealed, and its owner's name is suggested by its back inscription as "P3(shedw?)". This season, we confirmed that the shaft was made cutting the stable bedrock and we left the cleaning work covering the tomb by the brick-cements to protect it for the next excavation.
5) Pits, possible shafts
We also left the excavation of the pits which will be shafts for the next excavation. Two were behind the cult chapel, one beside the southern side room of the tomb-chapel, and another was beside the southern wall of the first court. Among them, the pit beside the southern side room is the largest and it could have a shallow ramp or pavement of mud bricks, which appeared in the Grid 4D-81.
6) Bricks in a line
At the southern wall of the second court, collapsed walls remained on the sand deposit, and upon removing it, two rows with two steps of the bricks in a line appeared. Around the Grid 4D-81, 82, 83 and 84, limestone chips layer did not accumulate and upon removing the sand deposit, a hard pebble pavement appeared. This pebble pavement was made on the sand artificially and the wall of the tomb-chapel stands on this layer.
7) Simple burials
Simple burials using a wooden or pottery coffin and reed mats were found at more than ten points around the tomb-chapel though their date are unknown.

1: Introduction

In this field season, we made clearance of the substructure of the tomb-chapel, consisting of three chambers at the bottom of Shaft A. During the excavation, a number of fragments of funerary objects, of various kinds and materials, were unearthed. They consist of clay, faience, glass, alabaster, basalt and so on. Most of objects, we found, were fragmentary and carbonized. Most of the precious objects must have been lost already, but we hoped to find some objects which could suggest the owner and the period of using the tomb. Judging from the motif and style of relief blocks and the characteristic form of the pottery, we presumed that the site dated to the late 18th Dynasty to the early 19th Dynasty.
From several finds, as scarabs, rings, jar sealings and seal impression, we could recognize the names of pharaohs; Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, and Ramesses II.
2: The description of selected finds
1) Relief blocks and stela
As in the case of the 1st season, the distributions of the relief blocks around the tomb-chapel were divided into two groups, so that, a relief group found in the Shaft A and another found in the sand deposit beside the southern wall. Most of them were fragmentary but they must have been a part of the wall of the upper construction in the tomb-chapel or the wall of the substructure. From Room A, relief blocks were recovered. They had the charasteristic feature of the late 18th Dynasty to the early 19th Dynasty.

Relief fragment found at the site 1Relief 1 Relief fragment found at the site 2Relief 2 Relief fragment found at the site 3Relief 3

The most conspicuous motif of relief blocks from the southern wall of the tomb-chapel was a part of the figure with the golden necklace, but most of another blocks were fragmentary. At the northern wall near to the Shaft 20, a large relief with the name of "Pashedw" was found (note 9). Another kind of relief motif had votive scene and mummy preparation in the two registers, which was found from Shaft 17. A stela was found at this shaft.

Stela found in the shaft tomb No.17Stela found in the shaft tomb No.17

2) Architectural part from buildings
During the excavation, fragments of limestone torus and cornice were recovered. And we also found a fragment of faience small pyramidion with an inscription on it (note 10).

Faience pyramidion 1Faience pyramidion 1 Faience pyramidion 2Faience pyramidion 2

3) Pottery
Most of pottery sherds from the site belong Silt group. There were several fragments from plant pots and miniature vases Silt group was composed of various kind of forms, such as plates, vases, jars and miniatures. Blue-painted pottery fragments were uncovered over the excavated area. Pottery with blue-painted decoration is very popular in the late 18th Dynasty to 19th Dynasty. Besides Silt clay pottery produced in Egypt, a group originated in the foreign country such as Canaanite jars in which wine was stored was found mostly from Room B of Shaft A. Jugs with characteristic handle with spiral decoration were imported probably from the Mycenean area, which came also from Rooms A and B of Shaft A (note 11).
4) Canopic jars
Canopic jae sets were made of alabaster or faience. The lids were represented in the figure of Hapy, Duamtef, Imsety and Qebefsenuef, the four sons of Horus. Some of them were represented in colors for its detail. They were found in the sand deposit of the Shaft A. Besides lids, fragments of the canopic jar body were found, in which three registers of the inscription with the name of "Mes, the overseer of the royal stable" suggest the same owner of shabti's example (note 12).
The alabaster vase of the complete form with a horizontal rim was found in the sand deposit outside the tomb-chapel.
5) Glass ware
Some fragments of the core glasses were found from the Room A of the Shaft A. Some had festoon decorations and iridescence (note 13).
6) Beads
A number of beads of various shapes and sizes were recorded from the site. Most of them are blue faience and glass (note 14). The most conspicuous was beads group which is found in Shaft 17. Nearly 200 pieces were collected around the skeleton, and various kinds of fruit, such as date, pomegranate, or another kind of floral design, as we could see such example in the Amarna period and Tutankhamen collection. Two lotus-shaped faience collar-terminals were also recovered(note 15).

Necklace found in the shaft tomb No. 17Necklace found in the shaft tomb No. 17

7) Rings
Faience rings with the name of Tutankhamen and his wife, Ankhenenamen were from Room A of Shaft A.

Ring of TutankhamunRing of Tutankhamun Ring of Tutankhamun, transcriptionRing of Tutankhamun, transcription

Ring of AnkhesenamunRing of Ankhesenamun Ring of Ankhesenamun, transcriptionRing of Ankhesenamun, transcription

8) Amulets
Amulets were also composed of different kinds of materials and motifs. There was an example made of carnelian, representing Wedjet eye.
9) Sockets and inlay pieces of artificial eyes
We found fragments of sockets and inlay pieces of artificial eyes. Most of them are fragmentary. Each part was made of glass attached probably with mortars.
10) Wooden objects
Fragments of wooden plaques were recorded.
11) Scarabs
Faience scarab on the golden frame and limestone scarab with the name of Ramesses II and the name of Tutankhamen was found on another faience scarab. There was a large granite scarab but without inscription. All of them were found in the Rooms A and B of Shaft A.

Scarab 1Scarab 1 Scarab 2Scarab 2

Scarab 3Scarab 3 Scarab 4Scarab 4

12) Stone statue
We found a body of limestone statue from Shaft 20. On the back of the statue, there was the carved name of "Pa[shedw]" filled with blue pigment.
A small rectangular base of statue made of the stone was from Shaft 17.
13) Shabtis
Shabtis were also composed of different kinds of material. The largest one was made of basalt without inscription and its feet were lost. It was measured 22cm in height and 9cm in width. There remained original red color partial on it. A fragment of alabaster shabti of Mes was also found. A number of fragments of blue faience shabtis were recovered.

Shabti 1Shabti 1 Shabti 2Shabti 2 Shabti 3Shabti 3

14) Seals
1. Mud sealing representing the so-called necropolis seal: Anubis and "Nine captives" was recovered from Shaft A (note 16).

Necropolis sealNecropolis seal

2. Seal impressions upon doorway (see above)
Seal impressions were evidently stamped on the entrance of the plastered doorway of Shaft 17 after the burial. The impressions are fragmentary and indistinct. It shows the cartouche of Akhenaten.
3. Jar sealing
More than thirty fragments of jar sealings were from Shaft 17. Most of them are painted blue with the name of Tutankhamen (note 17).
15) Jar labels
Two jar labels were recovered. Jar label No. 1 is from Shaft 20. Jar label No. 2 is from Shaft A.
1. Jar label No. 1 (JL-1)
"rnpt-sp 23 irp ... n hm-ntr ...", Year 23, wine ... of priest ...
This jar label shows the characteristic features of the late 18th Dynasty, judging from its paleographical point of view. We have no record, such as a high regnal year after the year 20 of King Horemheb. We may presume that JL-1 refers to the reign of Amenophis III.
2. Jar label No. 2 (JL-2)
"rnpt-sp 7 irp ... r'-ms-sw-mri [-imn] ...", Year 7, wine ... of ... Ramesses-mery Amen (Ramesses II) ...
It is very important to consider the date of the site that JL-2 was mentioned the early regnal year of Ramesses II on it.
16) Basin
A rectangular limestone basin was found from Room B of Shaft A. Its maximum exterior dimensions are 21.0 x 13.6 x 6.5 cm.

This season, we intended to clarify the owner's name of the tomb-chapel, and we could read the name "Ip3y" from the brick stamps in which the titles were written such as "Osiris, Royal Scribe Ip3y, justified", "He who was loved by the Lord of two Lands, True Royal Scribe, Royal Butler, clean of hands, Ip3y, justified". Then we tried to identify this person's name. We found many objects from the shaft deposit, but there was nothing to refer to this name (note 18).

Brick stamp of Ip3y 1Brick stamp of Ip3y 1

The owner's name of scarabs or finger ring were suggestible, in which the name "Tutankhamen" and "Ramesses II" were recognized. Besides them, many another owner's names could be read from the shabtis such as Mes, Amenemopet, and so on. Then we supposed the shaft of the tomb-chapel was re-used in the Ramesside period.

Tomb-chapel of Ip3y, the first phaseTomb-chapel of Ip3y, the first phase Tomb-chapel of Ip3y, the second phaseTomb-chapel of Ip3y, the second phase

The tomb-chapel was surrounded by several shaft tombs, as we could find more than 8 pits which could be shafts in the neighboring area in this season. The shaft can be dated to the late 18th Dynasty as we could read Tutankhamen's name from the jar sealings and Akhenaten's name from the seal impressions. Now we are going to consider the formation of the Memphite necropolis in the New Kingdom especially in the Post-'Amarna period by our excavations at Dahshur in the near future (note 19).


ASAƒ: Annuales du Service des Antiquites de l'ƒgypte
BIE: Bulletin de l'Institut ƒgyptienne
CMM: Collegium Mediterranistarum: Mediterraneus
CCƒ: Cahier de la CŽramique ƒgyptienne
EGA: (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) Egypt's Golden Age: The Art of Living in the New Kingdom 1558-1085 B.C., Boston 1982
JEA: The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology
MDAIK: Mitteilungen des Deutchen ArchŠologischen Instituts abteilung Kairo
OR: Orientalia
Rƒ: Revue d'ƒgyptologie
SAK: Studien zur AltŠgyptischen Kultur
SE: (Metropolitan Museum of Art) W. C. Hayes, The Scepter of Egypt, 2 Vols., New York 1959
ZAS: Zeitschrift €gyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde

note 1: S.Yoshimura, J.Kondo, S.Hasegawa, T.Sakata, M.Etaya, T.Nakagawa, S.Nishimoto,"A Preliminary Report of the General Survey at Dahshur North, Egypt", Annual Report of the Collegium Mediterranistrum Mediterraneus XX, 1997, pp.3-24.
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note 2: Few New Kingdom objects were listed in the report of the Dahshur area so far, but they were treated as a contamination without refering to the existence of the remains. G. JŽquier, "Repport prŽliminaire sur les fouilles exŽcutŽes en 1924-1925 dans la partie mŽridionale de la nŽcropole Memphite," ASAƒ 25 (1925), 55-75. A. Fakhry, The Monuments of Snefru at Dahshur, Cairo 1959-61.
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note 3: In the first season, grey and soft limestone chips were observed accumulating beside the Shaft A and scattering around the both side rooms. But this season, this layer were found in the wide area, and sometimes the worker called it "Tafla", but it seemed to originate to the digging of the shafts.
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note 4: As we reported, we found 15 shafts as a total around the tomb-chapel. In the case of shaft 8 or shaft 11, which are located at just north of the second court, the gravel is observed under the slight accumulation of the sand deposit, and grey limechip layer is not existed between them. Then it seems evident that the gravel descends towards the south, especially between shaft 16 and shaft A of the tomb-chapel.
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note 5: The three limestone blocks remained at the entrance of Room A, and it seemed to be a part of blocking. See G. T. Martin, The Memphite Tomb of Horemheb, Commander-in-Chief of Tut'ankhamun, London 1989, 145-46, pl. 159.
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note 6: Some reliefs were found from the sand deposit of the Room A. It must be discussed whether those reliefs originated from the superstructure or in the subterranean chambers. Room B seemed to be for storing some equipments mainly jars. G. Brunton and R. Engelbach, Gurob, London 1927, pls. VIII, XIX, 11.
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note 7: Room C seemed to be a niche and unfinished. Cf. Martin, op. cit., 154, pls. 166-167.
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note 8: The examples of the seal impressions on the blocking, see N. Reeves, The Complete Tutankhamun, London 1990, 92-93; N. Reeves, Valley of the Kings, London 1990, 34-35, 65, fig. 20; O. E. Kaper, ÒThe Door Sealings and Object Sealings,Ó in J. Baines ed., Stone Vesseles, Pottery and Sealings from the Tomb of TutÔankhuamun, Oxford 1993, 143-53, pls. 40-48. Although most of the seal impressions were fragmentary and unclear, the name of Akhenaten was identified from some specimens.
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note 9: The inscription with the name of "(P3)shdw" was inscribed in the larger size of 13cm in width, and it seemed to be re-used. The sculpture with the name of "P3(shedw)" was found from the shaft 20 located beside it.
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note 10: Faience pyramidion of Kenro in the reign of Ramesses II has 28cm in height and 39cm in width. E. Hofmann, Das Grab des Neferrenpet Gen. Kenro (TT178), Mainz am Rhein 1995, 84-85, Farbtafel XIV,b.
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note 11: The tall neck fragment of the jug; the form effected from the Syrian prototype is dated from the Amenophis III to the Amarna period. EGA, 82, no. 61. Bourriau pointed out that in the case stored in the Ashmolean, the clay is Marl version, and only the shape was influenced from the Syrian region. J. Bourriau, Umm el-Ga'ab, 123, no. 244. "Stirrup vase" of a low and biconical body with two vertical handles and a spout are usually refered to the Mycenaean product. Its painted decoration of the wide and thin band in black or red, and the painted central notch disk is also characteristic in the period of Late Helladic III A:2, and it is called "Amarna Decoration". EGA, 156, no. 165. Bourriau, op. cit., 124, no. 246 and 135-136, no. 267. R. Merrillees and J. Winter, "Bronze age trade between the Agean and Egypt -Minoan and Mycenaean pottery from Egypt in the Brooklyn Museum," in Miscellanea Wilbouriana 1 (1972), 101. Applique decoration painted blue is also popular in the New Kingdom pottery group. M. Guidotti, "A proposito dei vasi con decorazione Hathorica", Egitto e Vicino Oriente 1 (1978), 105-118. C. A. Hope, "Blue-painted and polychrome decorated pottery from Amarna: Preliminary corpus," CCƒ 2 (1991), 40, Fig. 7a, Pl. 5b.
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note 12: Not only the group of the Canopic jars, small vessels which are supposed to be kinds of kohl pots were found. W. M. F. Petrie, The Funeral Furniture of Egypt, London 1937, Pl. XXX, no. 687.
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note 13: Twisted decoration on the rim appeared in the reign of Amenophis II. In the festoon decoration of the rim fragment, the charasteristic yellow glass which is popular in the reign of Amenophis III and Amarna period, is contained. B. Nolte, Das GlassgefŠsse im alten €gypten, Berlin 1968, 47-77. Blue glass has some variations and they are classified by the chemical analysis. A. P. Kozlof, "The Malqata / el-Amarna Blues: Favorite Colours of Kings and Gods," in E. Goring, N. Reeves and J. Ruffle eds.: Chief of Seers, London 1997, 178-192.
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note 14: There is a possibility that glassy faience are included in some of the beads or inlays. Cooney refered that the decline of the glass making in the Third Intermediate Period resulted from the increasing of the glassy faience, and Nicholson also pointed out the appearance of the glassy faience in the time of the 22nd Dynasty. P. T. Nicholson, Egyptian Faience and Glass, Shire Egyptology Series No. 19, Princes Risborough 1993, 37. Contrally, the possibility that the glassy faience can be observed among the objects dated from the Middle Kingdom to the New Kingdom, is suggested. C. Lilyquist, R. H. Brill, and M. T. Wypyski, "Glassy Materials," in C. Lilyquist and R. H. Brill eds., Studies in Early Egyptian Glass, New York 1993, 5-22.
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note 15: The openwork broad collar was reconstructed by kinds of beads found in Shaft 17 with faience terminal plaques in the form of lotus flower at both sides. See EGA, 235, no. 308; SE II, 303, Fig. 188; 321, Fig. 203. 1) Zoned lotus-petals: Central part is white and both sides are yellow and blue. C. Andrews, Amulets of Ancient Egypt, London 1994, pl. 105. 2) Date: The surface is coloured turquoise-blue and purple-red. Andrews, ibid., pl. 65 (a). 3) Lotus seed-vessel or pomegranate: Central part is white and lower part is yellow or white. Andrews, ibid., pl. 65 (n). 4) Thistles or corncockles: Central part is green with check-striped decoration and lower part is turquoise-blue. Andrews, ibid., pl. 65 (o). 5) Daisy: Center is yellow and has 28 white petals. Andrews, ibid., pl. 65 (f). Another kind of bead is disk shape, which were popular in the 18 Dynasty down to the Ramesside period; EGA, 238-239, no. 316.
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note 16: As for the sealing motif of the small lumps of clay attached to cords or strips representing Anubis and nine captives, see Kaper, op. cit., 154-158. The same motif were stamped on the plastered door blockings of the Tutankhamen's burial chamber. Kaper, ibid., 143-146. Also, N. Reeves, The Complete Tutankhamun, op. cit., 53, 92-95, 202-203.
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note 17: Tutankhamen's jar sealings from the tomb are listed. J. Baines, op. cit., 87-138.
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note 18: We expect to find his other titles from kinds of objects, proceeding the cleaning work of the subterranean chambers.
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note 19: Necropolis formation in the New Kingdom at Memphis area will be discussed associating with the cemeteries in the Saqqara area for the moment. At the south of Unas's causeway, the tomb-chapels dated from the end of the 18th Dynasty to the reign of Ramesses II. G. T. Martin, The Tomb-chapels of Paser and Ra'ia at Saqq‰ra, London 1985; G. T. Martin, 1989 op. cit.; G. T. Martin, The Hidden Tombs of Memphis, London 1991; S. Tawfik, MDAIK 47 (1991), 403-409. Another cemetery is located at the east and north of the Teti's pyramid. C. M. Firth and B. Gunn, Excavations at Saqqara; Teti Pyramid Cemeteries, Cairo 1926, 66-83; N. Kanawati et. al., Excavations at Saqqara North-West of Teti's Pyramid, Sydney 1984, 59-80. Besides those cemeteries on the desert, rock cut tombs were also used in the New Kingdom, and they are located at the lower part of Saqqara cliff. A. -P. Zivie, "La tombe d'un officier de la XVIII dynastie ˆ Saqqarah," Rƒ 31 (1979), 135-151; A. -P. Zivie, "Tombes rupestres de la falaise du Bubasteion ˆ Saqqarah - campagne 1980-1981," ASAƒ 68 (1982), 63-69; A. -P. Zivie, "Tombes rupestres de la falaise du Bubasteion ˆ Saqqarah - II et III campagnes (1982-1983)," ASAƒ 70 (1984), 219-232; A. -P. Zivie ed., Memphis et ses nŽcropoles au Nouvel Empire, Paris 1988; A. -P. Zivie, DŽcouverte ˆ Saqqarah, Le vizir oubliŽ, Paris 1990.
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(First drafted: 5 November 1998)
(Last revised: 25 January 2000)