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Preliminary Report of the General Survey at Dahshur North, Egypt
(This text is a revised version of the preliminary report under the same title in Mediterraneus: Annual Report of the Collegium Mediterranistarum XX (1997), pp. 3-24. Thanks are due to Mr. Mike Jacobs for correcting the English for the text.)

S. Yoshimura / J. Kondo / S. Hasegawa / T. Sakata / M. Etaya / T. Nakagawa / S. Nishimoto

Recently we received new topographical information on the Memphite area leading us to reconsider the region's historical framework. The Nile has changed its flow 3 km eastwards since the dynastic period and not only the Memphite civil town of "'Ankh-Tawy" but also, its necropolis formation could be ascertained by reconstructing the dynastic river flow along with the funeral complex.

Employing trial methods now being used in Egyptology, the Research and Information Center of Tokai University began to analyze satellite data from an ecological point of view and then the Institute of Egyptology of Waseda University commenced field observations from an archaeological point of view over the area between Abusir and Dahshur.

As a result, the area between the Kendjer (13th Dynasty) and Senwosret (12th Dynasty) cemeteries was found to be the most noteworthy, as we discovered that the hilltop, situated l km west to this point, had a stable limestone bedrock to a height of 47-50 m, similar to the two cemeteries.

Excavation site at Dahshur 1Location Map 1 Location Map at Dahshur 2 Location Map 2

Location Map at Dahshur 3 Location Map 3 Location Map at Dahshur 4 Location Map 4

We call this area "Dahshur North" because it is located between the military railway of Dahshur and Snefru's Red Pyramid. This area is indicated on Lepsius's map, but nothing has been reported about the ruins (note 1). E.A.O.'s (Egyptian Antiquities Organization) research in the 1970s and 1980s seems not to have been conducted beyond the region south of the military railway, namely the Kendjer area (note 2), while recent expeditions into the precincts of the Senwosret pyramid have been made by the Metropolitan Museum of Art (note 3).

Because of this situation, the area has not been tackled scientifically so far, but as the control of the area was transferred from the military officials to the S.C.A. (Supreme Council of Antiquities), an initial attempt became possible. We carried out a general survey from March 4 to 31, 1996, and we found the site to contain a cemetery with a mud brick building, possibly the New Kingdom tomb chapel with the largest example of Horemheb at Saqqara and shafts around it. This will form a new topography of the Memphite necropolis.

We would like to express our thanks to the gentlemen at S.C.A., in particular to His Excellency, the previous Secretary General, Dr. Abd al-Halim Nur al-Din, and General Director of S.C.A., Pharaonic Section, Dr. Aly Hasan (now Secretary General of S.C.A.) As for the aerial logistics, we also thank Dr. Zahi Hawass, the General Director of the Giza Inspectorate, Mr. Muhammad Hagras, the General Director of the Saqqara Inspectorate, Mr. Magdy al-Ghandur and Mr. Khalid Abu Laila of the Saqqara Inspectorate.
(YOSHIMURA Sakuji, Director of The Institute of Egyptology, Waseda University /
SAKATA Toshibumi, Director of Research and Information Center, Tokai University /
NAKAGAWA Takeshi, Professor, The Department of Architecture, Waseda University)


1: Introduction
A joint project of Tokai University and Waseda University was authorized to undertake the studies. The technique of remote sensing is explained and then methods and the outline of the general survey is described. Further, results of ecological and archaeological studies will be expected in the future at the site of Dahshur North.

2: Satellite Remote Sensing Technology
1) Analysis of the data
Satellite remote sensing technology can be a powerful tool for a wide range observations in the field of archaeological study with an advantage of the high resolution sensory equipment carried by the French earth observation satellite SPOT-HRV. In addition, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite, JERS-1, and the European Remote Sensing Satellite, EERS-1, which observes the surface characteristics of the earth, with its undulations and gradients, is expected to serve as a new tool for archaeological observations.

SAR data of JERS-1 and EERS-1, and optical data from the American earth observation satellites LANDSAT-TM and SPOT-HRV, as well as the Russian 2 m resolution satellite data KVR-1000, all covering the observation area, were collected for this study.

Initially, SAR data of JERS-1 and EERS-1 was analyzed to discern the cemetery's bedrock, limestone or mud brick remains and pottery sherds scattered over the desert. Next, high resolution optical images of SPOT-HRV, LANDSAT-TM and KVR-1000 were intensively analyzed to find the outlines and other characteristics of existing remains as seen from satellites, especially focusing on some collapsed pyramid bases, ranging from Abu Rawash to Mazghuna.

2) 3-D simulation
Furthermore, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the same area was made by utilizing topographic maps on the scale of 1:5,000, because ecological analysis is also important. In antiquity, it is considered that there was an annual inundation of river floods which covered most of the land in the Nile valley. The water level fluctuation model of the Nile in antiquity was reproduced by 3-D simulation with the aid of DEM data. As a consequence of the simulation, we concluded that most pyramids and major remains are located on a bedrock 40 meters above sea level and were not flooded during the dynastic period.

Based on the satellite analysis and 3-D simulation, 38 observation targets were extracted for our study. The targets were overlaid with satellite images and geographical maps, and the results were printed as a field map scaled at 1:10,000.

3) Surface observation
Continual surface observations were carried out for checking the target sites on the field maps at spots. In the process of surface observation, there were some significant findings in that some of the extracted targets were obviously ancient sites not reported yet, even though most of them were sited within other concession areas.

Investigation 1 Surface observations 1 Investigation 2 Surface observations 2

Consequently, the area of Dahshur North was found to be important for a study of the necropolis formation in the Memphite area, as the area is located on stable limestone bedrock and is surrounded by Old and Middle Kingdom monuments.

3: Archaeological research
1) Grid system
The site was measured as 700 m square and a standard measurement point L was set at the southwestern corner of the area. We divided this area into 7 strips of 100 m from west to east (1-7), and again from south to north (A-G), totaling 49 major grid blocks. Each major grid was then subdivided into a 10 m grid, for a total of 100 minor grids. As for the cleaning research point, a 5 m square was most suitable, and the grids were divided into four 5 m squares, designated from "a" to "d". The central hilltop was measured as being 100 m (NS) x 300 m (EW), and here more than 150 surface deposits, in which 15 shafts were found to be disturbed already, were described upon it.

2) Expansion of the cemetery
To ascertain the expansion of the cemetery, we chose three points where the distribution of the limestone chips were the most dense on the surface. We sought these points through seismic research using electromagnetic waves (note 4), and then cleaned these points. At two points (4D-26b and 4B-82d), remains were not found and gravel was found 10-30 cm beneath the surface. The only exception was the western point (3E-21a), where part of a shaft entrance and its side construction were found. The cemetery seemed to expand on the Grid 2E-4E, though further extension could be possible westward beyond Grid 2E.

3) Shafts
A total of 15 shafts were found already disturbed. Most of them had a shaft entrance with the scale ca. 2 m long and l m wide, and the direction of the axis was approximately on a NS line. As for the superstructure, we could not find any traces during this season. At the shaft entrance, slabs (No. 14) or mud bricks (No. 11) had been used and sometimes the bricks were covered with plaster (No. 13). Toe holds could be observed on the wall of the shafts (No. 8).

Shaft Tomb No. 8 No. 8 Shaft Tomb, No. 8 No. 8

Shaft Tombs Nos. 13 and 14 Nos. 13A14 Shaft Tomb No. 13 No. 13 Shaft Tomb No. 14 No. 14

Plan and Sections of Shaft No. 14 Plan and Sections of Shaft No. 14 Shaft Tomb No. 14 Shaft Tomb No. 14 Shaft Tomb, No. 14 Shaft Tomb No. 14

Since sand deposits covered the shafts, we could observe only two inner plans (Nos. 8, 14). In both cases, the inner chamber was found to be 7-8 m under the entrance, measuring ca. 5 m square, supported by a rectangular pillar at the center (note 5). A rough sketch plan is shown; the sand deposit is laid thickly and fragments of a limestone sarcophagus, pottery sherds and bones were scattered. The burial chamber measured ca. 2.5-4 m long and 1.2-1.6 m wide. Here a dense distribution of pottery sherds and mud bricks were found. In both shafts, no wall decoration nor epigraph could be found by surface observation during this season. The largest shaft in the area (No. 15) is indicated on Lepsius's map, but the detail will be reported after a future excavation.

Plan and Sections of Shaft No. 15 Plan and Sections of Shaft No. 15 Investigation of Shaft Tomb 1Investigation at the shaft Investigation of Shaft Tomb 2 Record work at the shaft

4: Ecological and archaeological studies in the Memphite area
The ecology of dynastic Egypt has been discussed, but the necropolis formation has not been referred to from the ecological point of the Memphite area (note 6). From the area at Dahshur North, a New Kingdom cemetery will be revealed, purported to be near the possible ancient waterfront, where the necropolis could be approached from Memphis.
(ETAYA Masahiro, Section of Remote Sensing and Ecological Studies /
HASEGAWA So, Section of Archaeology)


1: Introduction
We recovered fragments of various objects during the course of clearing the area. In this preliminary report, only part of the finds will be reported in detail.

Selected Finds Selected finds

2: Description of the Finds
1) A fragment of sealing:
An oval shaped seal is stamped lightly on the surface of the mortar. The seal impression is incomplete but we can make out on the upper part that we have retrieved a crouching animal that seems to be either Anubis or Seth (note 7).

Necropolis Seal Necropolis Seal

2) Fragments of stone blocks with reliefs and inscriptions:
Several stone fragments have been recovered from the area. Most of them are limestone. The inscriptions are not complete because they are mostly very small fragments. We may discern the "Wedjet" eye on two fragments. The fragment No. 4 in the above line drawing shows the inscription "khenty..."

Inscribed Stone Inscribed Stone

3) Fragments of painted pottery:
A great number of pottery fragments have been collected from the surface of the excavation area. Among them, the blue painted fragments are characteristic of fragments uncovered in this area (note 8) (note 9).

Painted Pottery Painted pottery

4) A fragment of an ostracon with a picture of a man's head:
The picture is drawn on an inner surface of a fragment with black ink. It shows part of a man's head with an ear. Judging from the way the ear is drawn, this ostracon seems to belong to the Ramesside period. We can find some similarity with the style of ostracon painting on other Ramesside examples (note 10).

Ostracon with Human Figure Ostracon with human figure

5) A fragment of pottery with incised marks:

Pottery with Incised Mark Pottery with incised mark

6) A fragment of a blue glass vessel:
It seems to be a part of the base of a goblet. The date is unknown.

Alabaster Vessel Alabaster vessel

7) Fragments of stone vessels (Fig. 7, 10/11):
We recovered two fragments from two different stone vessels. One is made of diorite and the other is made of alabaster. Both of them are parts of jar mouths. It is not possible to decide the dates of these vessels from the styles.

Glass Vessel Glass vessel

8) Amulets:
1. A Bes shaped amulet made of light blue faience. Judging from its shape, it seems to belong to the New Kingdom (note 11).

Amulet Amulet

2. A bronze Urae (?) fragment.
3. A glass bead. Dark blue glass inlaid within yellow glass.
4. A faience bead.

9) A wooden model ear:

Object in the shape of ear Object in the shape of ear

10) Fragments of faience shabti figures:
We recovered two fragments of shabtis. They are the feet of two blue faience shabtis, inscribed with the shabti formula from the Book of the Dead. On the bottom surface of one of them a human figure is drawn in black ink (note 12). Judging from their styles, I believe that these shabtis belong to the late 18th Dynasty or the early 19th Dynasty (note 13).

Shabti 1 Shabti 1 Shabti 2 Shabti 2

3: Summary
By observing the finds from this survey area, we may narrow down the date of the site as being between the late 18th Dynasty to the Ramesside period in the New Kingdom. Particularly, the shabtis from the area show characteristic features of the beginning of the 19th Dynasty when we compare them with the examples shown in the study by Hans Schneider.
(KONDO Jiro, Section of Egyptology)


1: Introduction
In the course of clearance work undertaken after a preliminary surface reconnaissance during this season, a brick structure of considerable size was articulated at the site. The building is situated on a hilltop marking the center of the excavation area at Dahshur, commanding a view of several pyramids located nearby and the Memphite area.

Excavation Site Site, general view Pyramid of Senwosret III Pyramid of Senwosret III

Bent Pyramid of Sneferu Bent Pyramid of Sneferu North Pyramid of Sneferu North Pyramid of Sneferu

Due to the disappearance of walls to the level of foundations, no traces of doorways have been found so far. Only a few courses of mud bricks seem to be preserved.

2: Present state of the building
After measurements were carried out, preliminary plans and sections were drawn up by surveyors at the site. The following is a simplified plan drawn by the author indicating the remains of walls observed at ground level.

A building of the New Kingdom found at Dahshur, plan showing the present state A building of the New Kingdom, plan

The walls A1 and A2 running in parallel, have been greatly weathered and eroded on the inner faces, while the outer faces are preserved in fairly good condition. The two parallel walls B1 and B2, running almost the length of this building, cross thick walls C and D, as well as the heavily damaged walls F1-3 and I, forming rooms E and G respectively. The room G seems to be deliberately designed as square in plan, and a large depression is there as shown in the photographs.

Remains of Brick BuildingBrick wall 1 Remains of Brick Building 2 Brick wall 2

Remains of Brick Building 3 Brick wall 3 Remains of Brick Building 4 Brick wall 4 Remains of Brick Building 5 Brick wall 5

It should be noted that dense scatterings of limestone chips have been observed on both floors of rooms E and G, suggesting the use of stone blocks such as column bases or pavement slabs within the building.
The average dimensions of the bricks are ca. 36 cm x 18 cm x 9 cm. Although only one stamped brick was found, the inscriptions in the rectangular sealing had been badly damaged and are illegible. The size of the stamped rectangular impression on the brick is 63 mm in width, 110 mm in height.

Stamped Brick Stamped brick

3: Discussion
In spite of the rather inadequate information produced from the ruins, one of the most prominent architectural features seems to be evidently an axially-arranged plan, roughly aligned to east-west. Presumably the parallel walls A1 and A2 would have formed an access corridor (note 15), being approached from the east, and it is likely that the outer faces have been banked by sand and thus protected from weathering and deterioration. On the other hand, the plan showing the rectangular enclosure clearly indicates the typical architectural elements of Egyptian temple plans (note 16). Particularly, the remarkable point is the tripartite sanctuaries situated to the rear of the westernmost part, preceded by transverse and square open courts. The great depression in room G could be considered as a vertical shaft leading to an underground burial chamber.
As described elsewhere in this report, the sherds belonging to the late 18th Dynasty or the early 19th Dynasty are scattered around the building. Two fragments of blue-glazed shabtis found nearby would be also dated from the same period (note 17). This brick building thus strongly suggests comparison to the tomb chapel of the New Kingdom (note 18), based on its plan and several finds, see a tentative reconstruction shown below. It should be noted that the plan of the sanctuary flanked by the side rooms is problematic; It is better to restore thin partition walls and two columns if the building is belonged to the late 18th Dynasty; or, four columns should be reconstructed if the building seems to be in the early 19th Dynasty. Concerning the columns in the first and second courts, at least a row of six columns along the west wall would have been better to restored in view of the typology of the paralells; However the empty courts are presented here and the final reconstruction in architectural detail will be published by the author in future.

A building of the New Kingdom found at Dahshur, tentative reconstrucion, plan A building of the New Kingdom, tentative reconstruction, plan

It should be noted that one of the largest tomb chapels found was at Dahshur. The total length would be approximately 47 m if the access corridor is included with a width of up to approx. 17 m. There are no parallels except perhaps for that of Horemheb at Saqqara, ca. 47 m in length and 15 m in width (note 19), or that of Maya and Meryt at the same site (45 m in length) (note 20). The walls of both tombs are built of mud brick with limestone revetments, and it is generally accepted that this construction method was executed for the tomb chapels after the transfer of the capital from Amarna to Memphis by Tut'ankhamun until the first half of the reign of Ramesses II (note 21). The brick building recently found at Dahshur might have also been originally cased on inner sides of the courts with limestone.

4: Conclusion
Although the activity of the first season was strictly limited, it is clear that a large scale tomb chapel exists here at Dahshur as well as Saqqara, Thebes, Gurob and Abydos. In order to clarify the function and form of this building, it is hoped to conduct further detailed investigation.
(NISHIMOTO Shin-ichi, Section of Architecture)


A new method of remote sensing was used on the Memphite necropolis studies, and the site of Dahshur North was found to be of importantance for the necropolis formation and ecological studies of the Memphite area. The central area is a cemetery on a stable limestone bedrock comparable to the neighboring pyramid cemetery, which is composed of shafts around a central mud brick building. The plan of the mud brick building reminded us of a New Kingdom tomb chapel found at Saqqara, and the best comparative example was the tomb chapel of Horemheb. In our case, the owner's name and the reigning king is unknown yet, although one stamped mud brick was found, which was too damaged to be read.

Nevertheless, the finds recovered from the surface indicate a common datation, and it will be a new important discovery for reconsidering the Memphite necropolis from Saqqara to Dahshur area. As in the case of Saqqara, the New Kingdom cemeteries are formed on the hilltop at the south of Unas's causeway (note 22), and at the east of Teti's pyramid (note 23). Both of them are constructed near to their predecessor's monument, and their components, such as a causeway or valley temple were re-used, possibly as an approach from Memphis to the necropolis (note 24).
New Kingdom monuments have not been reported in Dahshur so far, and the site is on a high location between the area of south Saqqara and Dahshur. The area is surrounded by Old Kingdom and the Middle Kingdom monuments, and its topographical importance will be revealed during the next excavation.

ASA*: Annales du Service des AntiquitŽs de l'ƒgypte
BI*: Bulletin de l 'Institut ƒgyptien
CC*: Cehiers de la CŽramique ƒgyptienne
JEA: The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology
MDAIK: Mitteilungen des Deutchen ArchŠologischen Instituts abteilung Kairo
Or: Orientalia
R*: Revue d'ƒgyptologie
SAK: Studien zur AltŠgyptischen Kultur
Z_S: Zeitschrift fŸr _gyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde

note 1: C. R. Lepsius, Denkmaeler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien, Berlin 1885, Abth. I, Bl. 35, Text I, 208, mentioned nothing except pyramids and their areas. Barsanti or Borchardt worked the Dahshur area generally, but they did not refer to the area. See A. Barsanti, "Rapport sur la fouille de Dahchour," ASA*, 3 (1902), 198-205; L. Borchardt, "Ein Kšnigserla§ aus Dahschur," Z_S, 42 (1905), 1-11. Snefru's Red Pyramid is located 1 km south of the area, and researches were limited within the pyramid's complex. See, A. Fakhry, The Monuments of Sneferu at Dahshur, 2 vols., Cairo 1959-61, or "The excavation of Snefru's monuments at Dahshur. Second preliminary report," ASA*, 52 (1954), 563-594; Recent German mission's excavations were also carried out in its complex. See R. Stadelmann, "Die Pyramiden des Snofru in Dahschur, Erster Berichte Ÿber die Ausgrabungen an der nšrdlichen Steinpyramide," MDAIK, 38 (1982), 379-393, and the reports of the same titles in MDAIK, 39 (1983), 225-241; MDAIK, 49 (1993), 259-294.
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note 2: Kendjer's area was reported by G. JŽquier, "Rapport prŽliminaire sur les fouilles exŽcutŽes en 1924-1925 dans la partie mŽridionale de la NŽcropole Memphite," ASA*, 25 (1925), 55-75, and recent researches by E.A.O., see A. H. Moussa, "A Stela of Taharqa from the Desert Road at Dahshur," MDAIK, 37 (1981), 331-337.
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note 3: Senwosret III's area was excavated in the late 1900s, see J. de Morgan, Fouilles * Dahchour, 2 vols., Vienna 1895 and 1903, and recent Metropolitan Museum's expeditions concentrated on the pyramid itself and the southern and northern tombs besides the pyramid. See, D. Arnold, and R. Stadelmann, "Dahschur, Erster Grabungsbericht," MDAIK, 31 (1975), 169-174, and successive season's reports by D. Arnold, in MDAIK, 33 (1977), 15-20, MDAIK, 36 (1980), 15-21; and MDAIK, 38 (1982), 17-23; Or, 61 (1992), 251; Or, 63 (1994), 387; Or, 64 (1995), 264-265.
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note 4: The system for underground research is the same method Waseda University used for the Giza and Abusir areas. See S. Yoshimura, T. Nakagawa, S. Tonouchi and K. Seki, Studies in Egyptian Culture, No. 6, Non-Destructive Pyramid Investigation (1) -By Electromagnetic Wave Method-, Tokyo 1987, 53-60.
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note 5: The plan with a rectangular pillar at the center is rarely found in the neighboring cemeteries, see de Morgan, op. cit. and JŽquier, op. cit. It can be datable with future cleaning work.
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note 6: As for the ecology of the prehistoric period, see K. W. Butzer and C. L. Hansen, Desert and River in Nubia, London 1968. In the dynastic period, see M. M. el-Gamili and F. F .A. Shaaban "Tracing Buried Channels in Northwestern Dakahlia Governorate, Nile Delta, Using Hammer Seismograph and Electric Resisitivity Profiling," in ed. by van den Brink, The Archaeology of the Nile Delta, Problems and Priorities, Amsterdam 1988. The Nile from the dynastic to Islamic period according to the historical author's reference, see O. Tousson, MŽmoire sur les Anciennes Branches du Nil, le Caire 1922.
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note 7: On the so-called Necropolis seal, see "The seal of the Necropolis," by O.K. Kaper, in ed. by J. Baines, Stone vessels, pottery and seals from the Tomb of Tut'ankhamun, Oxford 1993, 165ff.
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note 8: M. Bell, "Regional Variation in Polychrome Pottery of the 19th Dynasty," CC*, 1 (1987), 6-76.
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note 9: C. A. Hope, "Blue-painted and polychrome decorated pottery from Amarna: A Preliminary Corpus," CC*, 2 (1991), 3-92.
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note 10: A. Page, Ancient Egyptian Figured Ostraca in the Petrie Collection, Warminster 1983; A. Gasse, Catalogue des Ostraca figurŽs de Deir el-MŽdineh Nos. 3100-3372 (5e Fascicule), Le Caire 1986, Nos. 3167, 3230.
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note 11: B. Schilick-Nolte and V. von Droste zu Hulshoff, SkarabŠn, Amulette, und Schmuck, Liebieghaus-Museum alter Plastik, Egyptische Bildwerke Band I, Melsungen 1990, 217-226.
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note 12: J. Kondo, "A Preliminary Report on the Re-clearance of the Tomb of Amenophis III (WV22)," in ed. by C. N. Reeves, After Tut'ankhamun, London 1992, 50.
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note 13: H. D. Schneider, Shabtis, An Introduction to the History of Ancient Egyptian Funerary Statuettes with a Catalogue of the Collection of Shabtis in the National Museum of Antiquities at Leiden, Part I-III, Leiden 1977.
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note 14: This text is a fully revised version of a paper originally presented to the Annual Meeting of the Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ) in 1996 entitled "A Building of the New Kingdom found at Dahshur-north, 1" in Japanese: cf. S. Nishimoto et al. in Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting AIJ 1996, 391-392, Tokyo. I would like to thank Hiroyuki Kashiwagi and Takaharu Endo, my colleagues at the Department of Architecture, for their help and valuable suggestion. I am indebted to Messrs. Nozomu Kawai and Koichiro Wada, both of the Institute of Egyptology of Waseda University, for providing useful information on the tomb chapels of the New Kingdom. Thanks are also due to Chris Rollston and Nozomu Kawai, both graduate students of the Johns Hopkins University, for their correcting the English for the text.
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note 15: This recalls the "causeway" in the plans of tomb 36 and 37 at Gurob, see G. Brunton and R. Engelbach, Gurob, British School of Archaeology in Egypt 41, London 1972, 11: Pl. XIX, A. P. Thomas, Gurob; A New Kingdom Town, Warminster 1981, 22.
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note 16: Cf. A. Badawy, A History of Egyptian Architecture: The Empire, Berkeley 1968, 176-177.
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note 17: Consideration by Jiro Kondo. On the parallels, see H. D. Schneider, op. cit., 95-99, Nos.;;;
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note 18: See the recent comprehensive discussions, cf. D. Polz, "Dra' Abu el-Naga; Die thebanische Nekropole des frŸhen neuen Reiches," in ed. by J. Assmann, E. Dziobek, H. Guksch, F. Kampp, Thebanische Beamtennekropolen. Studien zur ArchŠologie und Geschichte AltŠgyptens 12, Heidelberg 1995, 25-42; D. Raue, "Zum memphitischen Privatgrab im neuen Reich," MDAIK, 51 (1995), 255-268.
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note 19: G. T. Martin, The Memphite Tomb of Horemheb Commander-in-chief of Tut'ankhamun I, London I989, Pl. 5.
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note 20: G. T. Martin, M. J. Raven, B. G. Aston, and J. van Dijk, "The Tomb of Maya and Meryt; Preliminary Report on the Saqqara Excavations, 1987-8," JEA, 74 (1988), Fig. 1.
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note 21: J. van Dijk, "The Development of the Memphite Necropolis in the Post-Amarna Period," in ed. by A.-P. Zivie, Memphis et ses nŽcropoles au Nouvel Empire, Paris 1988, 42-43; G. T. Martin, The Hidden Tombs of Memphis, London 1991, 40-41.
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note 22: As for the free-standing tomb chapels on the hilltop, see G. T. Martin, 1989 and 1991, op. cit.; G. T. Martin, et al., The Tomb-Chapels of Paser and Ra'ia at Saqqara, London 1985, and its preliminary reports of the excavations, see JEA since 1976.
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note 23: V. Loret, "Fouilles dans la NŽcropole Memphite (1897-1899)," BI*, 3 (1899), 85-100; J. E. Quibell, and A. G. K. Hayter, Teti Pyramid, North Side, Cairo 1927, 10-11; J. M‡µek, "The Tomb-Chapel of Hekamaetre-neheh at Northern Saqqara," SAK, 12 (1985), 43-60.
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note 24: Approach from Memphis is mentioned. see D. G. Jeffreys, The Survey of Memphis I, London 1985. As for the Memphite topography in the New Kingdom, see K. A. Kitchen, "Towards a Reconstruction of Ramesside Memphis," in ed. by W. J. Murnane, Fragments of a Shattered Visage, Memphis 1991, 87-104; D. G. Jeffreys, and H. S. Smith, "Memphis and the Nile in the New Kingdom: A Preliminary Attempt at a Historical Perspective," in ed. by A.-P. Zivie, op. cit. , 55-66. We thank Mr. Koichiro Wada, providing information on the Memphite topography.
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