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Unit 1 Introduction to on-demand Internet course: Asian Englishes and Miscommunication, Michiko Nakano, Director, Distance Learning Center, Waseda University

l         Our objectives and teaching method

l       Kachru (1992), Modiano(1999a and 1999b) and McArthur(1987) as our basics

l       Waseda University studentsReactions to the on-demand Internet course (OIC) World Englishes and Miscommunication in the first term in 2004


Unit 2 Theoretical Background

Lecture 1 My current perspective on English as an International Language by Dr Larry E. Smith, Executive Director, International Association of World Englishes, Former Dean and Director at East West Center

              My Current Perspective on EIL


              Miscommunication Prevention


Lecture 2 English is an Asian Language, by Dr Larry E. Smith, Executive Director, International Association of World Englishes, Former Dean and Director at East West Center

              Facts 1-3

              Borrowing and Nativization

              On-going Debates about English in Asia

              Problem of Mutual Intelligibility

              Difference in Discourse Patterns

              Native Speakers of Asian Englishes/World Englishes


Lecture 3 Direction for ENGLISH Language Education In Asia, by Dr Anne Pakir,







              Three Concentric Circles of English

              Two competing global paradigms

              Diffusion of English paradigm

              Ecology of language paradigm

              “Worldliness of English” (Pennycook, 1966:72)

              ‘World Englishes’ (Kachuru 1996:911)

              ‘Glocal English’ or English as a glocal language (Pakir, 1997)


Unit 3 Singapore English



              A Sociolinguistic Profile of Singapore

              The Evolution towards Excellence in Education

              The Future of the Official and the Non-official Languages

              The English Language: issues and development



              The English Language in Singapore


              Cline Analysis

              Singlish and English




              "The Bilingual Education Policy”

              Singapore English: Contexts of Competence


Lecture 4: Segmental Features of Singapore English Pronunciation: can the world understand us? Dr Low Ee Ling, National Institute of Education and Nanyang Technological University

Lecture 5: Suprasegmental Features of Singapore English pronunciation: can the world understand us?



Unit 4 Indian English, by Dr Tej K. Bhatia

Syracuse University

- History and Sociocultural Setting

              - Colonial Era and English

              English After the Independence of India (1947—

              English: Carrying the Indian Experience

              Raja Rao's on Indian English

              Indian English: Deviation vs. "errors"

              Range of Variation

              Majority Speaks Indian English

              What English Indians Should Learn?

              Intelligibility of Indian English

              Phonetic and Phonological Features


                            Lack of Interdental

                            Pronunciation: Close to Written Form

              Salient Structural Properties: Grammar

Discourse Features

- Acceptability and Intelligibility

- Non-Verbal System

- Tips for Cross-cultural Communication


Unit 5 Malay English

              By Associate Professor Dr. Azirah Hashim, Faculty of Languages and Linguistics

University of Malaya


Lecture 1: History, People and Role of English

Lecture 2: Lexical Borrowing and Colloquialisms

Lecture 3: Grammatical Features

Lecture 4: Para-linguistic Features and Socio-cultural Differences

Lecture 5: Pronunciation


Unit 6 Philippine English

              By DANILO T. DAYAG, Ph.D. Associate Professor and Graduate Studies Coordinator, Department of English and Applied Linguistics, De La Salle University

- Introduction

- Lecture 1: English as an International Language (EIL) and the sociolinguistics of Philippine English as a variety of English.

    The notion of English as an International Language (EIL) 

    The sociolinguistics of Philippine English as a legitimate nativized variety of English

       The legitimization of Philippine English

       Philippine English and social stratification

- Lecture 2: Phonological features of Philippine English

    Segmental phonetics of Philippine English

       Vowel system, Consonantal system

    Supra-segmental phonetics of Philippine English

- Lecture 3: Lexical features of Philippine English

- Lecture 4: Syntactic features of Philippine English

- Lecture 5: Discourse features of Philippine English

- Lecture 6: Potential sources of miscommunication at the phonological, lexical, syntactic, and discourse levels

- Concluding remarks


Unit 7 Thai English, Dr Sudaporn Luksaneeyanawin, Centre for Research in Speech and Language Processing, Chulalongkorn University

Part I Theoretical Framework and Preliminaries

1. Theoretical Framework

2. Scenario of the Use of English in Thailand


Part II Phonology

3. Segmentals – Consonants

4. Segmentals – Vowels and Diphthongs

5. Suprasegmentals – Words Accents, Sentence Tonic, Rhythm

6. Suprasegmentals – Tones and Intonations

Part III Syntax

7 Noun Phrase

8 Verb Phrase

Part IV Pragmatics

9 Pragmatic Transfer and Refusal Strategies in Thai English

10 Structures and Strategies of Request in Thai English



Unit 8 China English

By Wang Yueping, Associate Professor, Faculty of College of Foreign Languages, Capital Normal University


Lecture 1: Linguistic Features of Chinese English

              A Brief Review of Contrastive Studies in China

              Section 1: Phonetic features

Section 2: Lexical Features

Section 3: Syntactic features

Lecture 2 Paralinguistic Features & Socio-cultural Differences

              A Brief Review of Studies on Paralinguistic Features

              Section 1: Turn-taking features & misunderstanding

              Section 2: Timing in turn-taking

              Section 3: Pragmatic Failures


Unit Hong Kong English by Dr. Tony T. N. Hung, Language Centre, 

Hong Kong Baptist University

Lecture 1

Unit1.1 Introduction

              About HONG KONG

              English in Kong Kong

              Language Use

              General features of HK English

Unit1.2: Phonology (1) Vowels

              Phonetic Transfer from Cantonese

              HK English Vowels: Neutralisation of Long/Short Contrasts

              Hong Kong English Vowels & Their Equivalents in British R.P

              Comparison of the vowel systems of Singapore (SE), Hong Kong (HKE),

Chinese (CE) and Japanese (JE) English

              Implications for Intelligibility

              Diphthong Shortening in HKE

              <Diphthong-Shortening Rule in HKE (an approximation)>

<Recommended Reading>

- Hung, T.T.N.(2002). 'Towards a Phonology of Hong Kong English.'  In K. Bolton (ed), Honk Kong English: Autonomy and Creativity, pp. 119-140. Hong Kong University Press

- Hung, T.T.N.(2002). 'English as a global language and the issue of international intelligibility.' Asian Englishes, Vol.5, No. 1, pp.4-17.


Unit 1-3: Phonology (2): Consonants

<Lack of Voiced vs. Voiceless contrast in HKE consonants>

Pronunciation of Dental fricatives in HK English

              Word-final obstruent devoicing

              [l][n] Alternation: Data from 15 HK university undergraduates

              Number of words in English depending on certain consonant contrasts

<Recommended Reading>

- Hung, T.T.N.(2002). 'Towards a Phonology of Hong Kong English.' In K. Bolton (ed), Hong Kong English: Autonomy and Creativity, pp.119-140, Hong Kong University Press.


Unit 1-4: Phonology (3): Stress & Intonation

              Is Word Stress Important for Intelligibility?

              Examples of Stress 'Rules' in English

              No difference in Verb vs. Noun

              Connected Speech in HKE

<Recommended Reading>

-          Bolton, K. & Kwok, H. (1990) 'The dynamics of the Hong Kong accent: social identity

and sociolinguistic description.'  Journal of Asian Pacific Communication. 1(1), 147-72


Lecture 2

Unit 2-1: Lexical Features

              Some Common HKE Words

i)       Borrowings from Cantonese

ii)      Standard English words with meanings or collocations peculiar to Hong Kong English

iii)   Rare English words current in HK

              Lexical Similarities with Chinese English

              Pragmatic Features

Unit 2-2: Grammar (1): Nouns & Subjects

              Grammatical Features of HKE

              HKE and 'Interlanguage'?

              Some Common Grammatical Features of Hong Kong English

              (1) Lack of Subject-verb agreement

              (2) Missing Subject

              (3) 'Pseudo-passive' Constructions>

              . The Noun Phrase

(1) Article Omission

              (2) Redundant Articles

              (3) Relative Clauses


Unit 2-3: Grammar (2): Verbs

              (1) Finite vs. Non-finite

              (2) Auxiliaries

              (3) Present/Past Participles

              (4) Transitive/Intransitive

              (5) Phrasal Verbs

Unit 2-4: Grammar (3): Sentence Structure

(1)    Coordination

(2)     Predicators

(3)    Subordinators

(4)    Existential Constructions

<Recommended Reading for Units 2-2 to 2-4>

-          Hung, T.T.N. 'Interlanguage analysis and remedial grammar teaching.'  Papers in Applied Language Studies, Vol.5, pp.155-168.  Hong Kong Baptist University, 2000

Lecture 3

Unit 3: English as a Global Language: Implications for Teaching

Unit 3-1  Introduction

              Issue of 'international intelligibility'

              A Pragmatic Approach to the Teaching of English Pronunciation

Unit 3-2: Implications for Teaching

              How Useful?

Unit 3-3: How Frequent & How Difficult

              How Frequent?

              How Difficult?

              How appropriate?

<Recommended Readings>

- Hung, T.T.N. (2002) 'English as a global language and the issue of international intelligibility'  Asian Englishes, Vol.5, No. 1, pp..4-17.

- Jenkins, J. (2001)  The Phonology of English as an International Language.

Oxford University Press.



Unit 10 Korean English

Korean English A, Dr Kyung-Ja Park, English Department, Korea University

1. Linguistic features

(1) Introduction                Presented by Youngji Hong

(2) Pronunciation              Presented by Eunhee Kim

             (3) Rhythm                       Presented by Jinah Kim

(4) Intonation                   Presented by Hera Chu

(5) Grammaical feature    Presented by ChangKwon Sung

(6) Pragmatic feature-1    Presented by HyunJin Kim

(7) Pragmatic feature-2    Presented by Youngji Hong

(8) Conclusion                   Presented by Hera Chu

2. Paralinguistics and Socio-cultural Differences

(1) Korean culture                          Presented by SeokHwan Jung

(2) Sources of Misunderstanding   Presented by JinHee Kim

(3) Gesture and Manners               Presented by Onsoon Lee

3. Status, Gender, and Korean

(1) Status, Gender, and Korean -1 Presented by Jooyoun Wee & Nari Lee

(2) Status, Gender, and Korean -2 Presented by Yousun Chung Korean English B

1. An Overview of the Pronunciation of Korean English Speakers

Presented by Hikyoung Lee, Kyung-Ja Park

2. Syntactic Transfer by Korean learners of English

Presented by Kyung-Ja Park & Young-Gyun Ju

3. Paralinguistics and Socio-cultural Differences

Presented by SungHye Kim, Kyung-Ja Park, Hikyoung Lee


Korean English C                By Dr Kyutae Jung, Hannam University,

Dr Sujung Min, Kongju National University

Lecture 1 World Englishes and Miscommunication: Korean case

Lecture 2: New Profile of English in the 21st century



Unit 11 Japanese English: Michiko NAKANO

Lecture 1: Japanese English at the Junior High School Level (1): Evaluation of Oral Interaction Skills

              A brief introduction to English Language Education in Japan (pdf)

An illustration of Communicative Activity - Interactive English Forum


              A Pilot Study 1: Dysfluency Analysis-- mistakes, speech rates, pauses, repetitions,

fillers, evasions, etc.

              -Analysis of Data obtained from English Interactive Forum

- Analysis of Interactions among Native Speakers (ALT)

- Mistakes, total words spoken, speech rate, pauses, repetitions, self-corrections, and

evasions such as rephrasing, use of loan-words

Japanese English seen in Pilot 1 and Pedagogical tips

Pilot Study 2: Some Features of the Use of Conversation Management Discourse


                            - Participants:

                            1) Japanese junior high school students (JHS)

             2) Philippine immigrants (ESL)

                           3) Native Canadians (NS)

- Format: Five-minute oral interactions in groups of three

- Topic: Culture

<Conversation Management>

-          Lexical CMDMs

-          Eye contacts

-          Facial expressions

-          Gestures

-          Nodding among the JHS

-          Touching oneself

-          Noises

-          Echoing and Repetition


Lecture 2: Japanese English at the Junior High School Level (2): Grammatical

Competence seen in Interactive English Forum

              <Background 1/2>

              - Speaking, oral skills (Bygate 1987, Davies 1978)

- Interaction Hypothesis (Long 1981)

- Common goals and interests (Scarcella & Oxford 1992)

- Paired and small group activities (Long & Porter 1985)

- Group work (1996)

<Background 2/2>

- Communicative Competence in Canale and Swain includes four components which

influenced the Course of Study in Japan

               - Grammatical Competence

- Sociolinguistic Competence

             - Discourse Competence

               - Strategic Competence

- Sociolinguistic Competence

<Grammatical Competence>

- Canale (1983): mastery of language code (verbal & non-verbal)

             - Vocabulary

             - Word formation, sentence formation

             - Pronunciation

             - Spelling

             - Linguistic semantics

<Purpose of Study>

- 1) What kinds of grammatical features can be seen in junior high school students'

oral interactions?

2) What discriminates the more proficient speakers and less proficient speakers from grammatical point of view?

<Categories of Data Analysis>

- 1) Total number of words spoken in five minutes

  2) Number of non-textbook words (vocabulary)

               3) Sentence structures

            a) sentential fragment (reactive tokens, backchannels, noun phrases/adjective phrases/adverbs, prepositional phrases)

                           b) sentences (simple sentences, compound sentences, complex sentences)

<Result 1>

- Total number of words: MLS < HLS < NS

                       158.8  248.2  293.1

<Result 2>

- Number of non-textbook words: MLS nearly= HLS < NS

<Result 3>

              - Sentence structure

            HLS: shorter segments , Reactive tokens ↑

      NS: Complex sentences

<Result 4>

- Sentence structure

            HLS: heavy reliance on Reactive tokens

            MLS: heavy reliance on Simple sentences

            NS: greater number of Complex sentences



- 1) HLSs use shorter segments excessively; although it can function as a step to

improve their oral interaction skills, it impedes the negotiation of meanings

2) For developing learners' communicative competence, teachers should give students more opportunities to structure their thoughts so that they can start using complex sentences and increase their size of vocabulary which are carriers of meanings


Lecture 3: Sociolinguistic Features of Oral Interactions among Junior High School


<Sociolinguistic competence>

- Hymes (1972): Sociolinguistic competence

  - Appropriateness: what is possible/feasible/appropriate/actually done

- Swain (1984)

  - appropriateness of meaning/form

- Cohen (2003): Six speech acts

  - Appropriateness: apologies/complaints/compliments/refusals/requests/thanking

<Between NNS and NS>

- Linnell et al. (1992)

  - Apologies: no significant difference

- Fukushima & Iwata (1987)

  - Requests: no significant difference

- Cohen, Olshatain & Rosenstein (1986)

  - Apologies: distinction


- Cohen (1996): L2 learners native language and culture

  - not at all appropriate for the target language and cultural situation

<Purpose of Study>

1) How do beginners of English in Japan (JHS students) develop their sociolinguistic oral interaction skills?

2) Are there any significant differences between NSs and NNSs?

3) Can we find some features of Japanese ENglish in this domain?

<Categories of Data Analysis>

- Apologies, compliments, requests, objections/disagreements, assistancee

<Result 1>

- Quantitative Analysis

  - Number of sociolinguistic expressions: few

      MLS: apologies

      HLS: compliments

<Result 2>

  - Sum total of sociolinguistic expressions per group: HLS: most

<Result 3>

  - Proportion of expressions showing sociolinguistic competence

      HLS: compliments

      MLS: objections

<Result 4>

  - Mean ratios of the total number of sociolinguistic expressions per group: MLS nearly= HLS >> NS

<Qualitative Analysis 1>

- Apologies: "I'm sorry." Communication breakdowns

<Qualitative analysis 2>

- Apologies: HLS - Expanded range of expressions

                   "I'm sorry I can't explain/ That's O.K. I understand"

<Qualitative analysis 3>

- Cohen (2003): apologies

    a) expression of an apology   MLS

    b) acknowledgement of responsibility HLS

    c) explanation of account     HLS

    d) offer a repair

    e) promise of non-recurrence


    Apologies in Japanese follow this pattern

<Compliments>: HLS

<Compliments in Japanese>

- We usually do not accept compliments in a straightforward manner; we prefer to show our modesty, by saying 'Not at all.' or 'No, no, no.'  Or at most, we say, 'Really?  Do you think so?'  This is similar to 'No-hah' in Malay English.

- We also compliment each other, as in the second example in HLS.

- * The first example follows the NS practice, since she accepts the compliment, saying 'Thank you.'

<Requests 1>

- Direct & strong questions

<Requests in Japanese>

- When we request something in formal situations, we follow the sequence of Thanking, Apologizing and Requesting; e.g., I am always very grateful to you.  I am really feel sorry to ask you in such a short notice, but would it be possible to come to my house on Sunday? (Translation)  Therefore, in Japanese English at this level, due to the lack of linguistic resources, the utterances sound very direct and strong to us.

<Requests 2>

- MLS & HLS: Please...

- Nakano et al. (2000, 2003): Japanese overuse "imperative + please"


- MLS: simple questions and answers

       "Do you...?" "No." breakdowns

  MLS & HLS: mitigation (HLS > MLS)

       Try not to offend other speakers

  NS: indirect


- Quantity: few

- Apology

   - MLS: apologized for breakdowns using only "I'msorry."

   - HLS: described the reason and responded to the apology

- Compliment: HLS

- Imperative + please: MLS & HLS

<Some features of JE>

- Quantitative analysis: not sufficient but showed some implications for teachers

- Some characteristics of JE at this level

   - Apologies: overuse of 'I'm sorry.'

     They tend to compliment each other

     Their requests are too direct and strong

     Overuse of 'please + imperatives'

<A Note on Our Old Traditions>

- Considerations for Others, Generosity, and Equality

 義 Fairness, Justice

  Courtesy and Order in the society


Lecture 4: Discourse Features of Oral Interactions among Junior High School Students

<Discourse Competence>

- Swain (1984): Discourse Competence

- Halliday & Hasan (1976), Widdowson (1978): Cohesion & Coherence

- Goffman (1981), Richards & Schmidt (1983): Turn-taking

- Sacks et al. (1974): Turn-taking (Nomination, Self-selection)


- Yule (1996), Yngve (1970): Backchannels

- Duncan and Fiske (1977): Non-verbal factors in backchannels

- Clancy et al. (1996): Reactive Tokens

  1) Backchannes: "Um huh."

  2) Reactive expression: "Great."

  3) Repetition

  4) Collaborative finish

  5) Laughter

  6) Short statement: "That's wonderful."

<Categories of Data Analysis>

- 1) Coherence of topics

    a) Number of subordinate topics

    b) Number of words uttered on each subordinate topic

    c) Number of words uttered relating to the given topic

  2) Turn-taking

    a) Self-selections

    b) Nominations

<Reactive Tokens>

- a) Reactive Tokens A:

     - Reactive expressions: "Great!"

     - Repetitions of statements by another speaker

     - Short statements: "That's wonderful."

  b) Backchannels

     - One-word utterances: "Yeah.""Oh."

     - Laughter

  c) Body language

     -Gestures including nods and smiles


-Coherence of Topics (Quantitative analysis)

   - Number of subordinate topics: NO DIFFERENCE

   - Number of words on subordinate topics: CLEAR DIFFERENCE

   - Number or words on given topic: REMARKABLE DIFFERENCE -> INDICATOR

- Coherence of Topics (Qualitative analysis)

   - MLS: change topics unexpectedly

   - HLS: conversation is more coherent

   - NS: conversation flows naturally


- Quantitative analysis

  - Mean values of number of turn-takings: HLS take self-selections and nominations the most

- Qualitative analysis

  - examples of nominations and self-selection by the MLS

  - NS: conversation flows naturally

<Reactive token>

- Quantitative analysis

  - Mean ratios of reative tokens

     Reative tokens A: HLS: most

     Backchannels: HLS: most

     Body language: MLS: most -> HLS: less -> NS: least

- Qualitative analysis

  - HLS: abundance of reative tokens


- Coherency of topics: a prominent difference among groups

- Turn-takings: less proficient speakers take more turn and have an increased number of unnatural turn-takings

- Reative tokens: HLS: many backchannels and reative tokens


Lecture 5: Strategic Features of Oral Interactions among Junior High School Students

<Strategic Competence>

- Canale and Swain (1980), Canale (1983)

  - To compensate for breakdowns in communication due to insufficient competence or to performance limitations

  - To enhance the rhetorical effect of utterances

- Backman (1990)

  - "communicative language ability

  - strategic competence = important part of all communicative language use

- Terrell (1977)

  - Communication strategies are crucial at the beginning stages of L2

<Categories of Data Analysis>

- Tarone (1983)

  1) Paraphrase

      Circumlocution: "uh, smoking something, we use..."

      (Approximation): pipe for waterpipe

      (Word coinage): airball for balloon

  2) Borrowing

      Literal translations: "He invites him to drink, for they toast on another."

      Language switch: balon for balloon

      Mime: clapping one's hands to illustrate applause

      (Appeals for assistance): "What is this?"

  3) Avoidance

      Topic avoidance

      Message abandonment

<RESULTS: Quantitative analysis>

- Mean rations of strategic expressions per item

   - MLS: Topic Avoidance   Language swithces

   - HLS: Language switches

- Mean ratios of the total number of strategic expressions per group

     MLS nearly= HLS >> NS

<RESULTS: Qualitative Analysis>

- Circumlocutions: MLS

- Incorrect literal translations: "Me, too." -> should be "Me, neither."

- Language switches

   umeboshi, natto, (shoyu or cup)ramen, tofu, wasabi, sashimi, sushi, yakiniku, chahan

   Pokemon, Konan, Saiyuki, Chohakkai, and hari nezumi 

Lecture 6 Japanese English at the high school level: Fluency and Accuracy in the

Spoken English of Japanese High School Learners

              1. Introduction

2. Theoretical Background
2.1 Fluency and accuracy of foreign language learners

              2.2 The definition of fluency

              2.3 The definition of accuracy

3. Experiment
3.1 Purposes

3.2 Hypotheses

3.3 Subjects

3.4 Procedure

3.5 Analysis
3.5.1 Transcribe the spoken data

3.5.2 Numerical values of fluency

4. Results
4.1 Hypothesis 1

4.2 Hypothesis 2

4.3 Kinds of errors

5. Educational implications


Lecture 7 Japanese English at the university level: grammatical features in oral

Interactions-- tentative analysis based on clinically elicited speech samples

              1. Introduction

                   2. Data and method

2.1. Data obtained from the learners who had attended Tutorial English

              2.2 Error tagset used in this study

              2.3 Research Questions

              3. Results and data analysis

3.1. The results of the nine error types

3.2. Some results

3.2.1. Preposition omission errors

3.2.2. Preposition addition errors

3.2.3. Possible learner chunks

4. Conclusion


Lecture 8: Japanese English at the university level: dysfluency features in oral


           1. Introduction

              2. Data and Method

2.1. The categorization of self-repairing strategies   

2.2. Tagset used in this study

2.3. Research questions

3. Results

3.1. The breakdown of self-repairing strategies

3.2. The mean frequency of self-repairing strategies per learner

3.3. Self-repairing strategies and the level of learners

3.4. The relationship between the self-repairing strategies and the editing term

4. Conclusion


Lecture 9: Japanese English at the university level: pragmatic features – evidence from Discourse Completion Tasks and Naturally Occurring Data

1.0    Introduction

2.0  A Study of EFL Discourse using Corpora (6): Discourse Completion Tasks in relation to the analysis of Textbooks as a learner’s input

2.1. Purpose

2.2 Method

2.2.1 Subjects

2.2.2 Materials

2.2.3 Procedure

2.3. Results and Discussion

2.3.1 Thanking

2.3.2 Apology

2.3.3 Requests

2.3.4 Offers

2.4  Comparison of the DCT data with textbooks

2.4.1 Thanking

2.4.2 Apology

2.4.3 Request

              2.4.4 Offers

              2. 5  Conclusion

              3.0  A Study of EFL Discourse Using Corpora (7): An Analysis of E-mail Discourse and Variation of Expressions

              3.1 Purpose

              3.2 Method

3.2.1 Subjects

3.2.2 Procedures

3.3 Results and Discussions

              3.3.1 The comparison of mean sentence length between NS and NNS

              3.3.2 The comparison of vocabulary frequencies between NS and NNS

3.3.3 The comparison of adjective intensification strategies between NS and NNS

              3.4 Conclusion

              4.0 Cross-Cultural comparisons of situation assessments and DCT:

An Investigation of Requests Made by Japanese Learners of English

              4.3 Research Questions

              4.4 Subjects

              4.5 Procedure

4.5.1 Data Collection

              4.5.2 Nine Strategies suggested by Blum-Kulka et al.(1989)

              4.6 Results and Discussion

              4.7 Conclusion